Synthetic glucocorticoid drug, dehydrated analogue of hydrocortisone. Anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, immunosuppressive action, increases beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity to endogenous catecholamines. Interacts with specific cytoplasmic receptors buy primobolan in all tissues, especially many of them in the liver) to form a complex that induces the formation of proteins (including .ch enzymes that regulate cells in the vital processes).. The protein sharing reduces the amount of globulin in plasma, increases the synthesis of albumin in the liver and kidneys (with increase of albumin / globulin ratio) decreases protein synthesis and increases in muscle catabolism.
Lipid metabolism : higher increases the synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides, it redistributes fat (fat accumulation occurs mainly in the shoulder belt, the face, abdomen), leads to the development of hypercholesterolemia. carbohydrate metabolism: increases carbohydrate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract; It increases the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase (increase of glucose from the liver into the blood); fosfoenolpiruvatkarboksilazy increases the activity and synthesis of aminotransferases (activation of gluconeogenesis); contributes to the development of hyperglycemia. Water-eletrolitny sharing delays Na + and water in the body, stimulate the excretion of K + (mineralocorticoid activity) reduces the absorption of Ca 2+ from the gastrointestinal tract, reduces bone mineralization. The anti-inflammatory effect is due to inhibition of the release of eosinophil and mast cells inflammatory mediators; lipokortinov inducing formation and reduce the number of mast cells that produce hyaluronic acid; with decreasing capillary permeability; stabilization of cell membranes (particularly lysosomal) membranes and organelles.
Acts on all phases of the inflammatory process: inhibits prostaglandin synthesis for arachidonic acid level (Lipokortin inhibits phospholipase A2 suppresses liberatiou arachidonic acid inhibits the biosynthesis endoperekisey, leukotrienes promoting inflammation, allergies, etc.), Synthesis of “proinflammatory cytokine” (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and others).; increases the stability of the cell membrane to the action of various damaging factors.Immunosuppressive effect is due to the called involution of lymphoid tissue, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation (especially T cells), suppression buy primobolan of the migration of B cells, and the interaction of T and B lymphocytes, inhibition of the release of cytokines (IL-1, 2;. gamma interferon) of lymphocytes and macrophages and the decrease in antibody formation Antiallergic effect is due to a decrease of synthesis and secretion of mediators of allergy, inhibition of release from sensitized mast cells and basophils, histamine and other biologically active substances, reducing the number of circulating basophils, T. and B lymphocytes, mast cells;suppression of lymphoid and connective tissue, reducing the sensitivity of effector cells to mediators of allergy, inhibition of antibody production, changes in the immune response of the body. When obstructive airway diseases effect is due, mainly, inhibition of inflammatory processes, preventing or reducing the severity of mucosal edema, reduction of eosinophil infiltration submucosal bronchial epithelium layer and deposition in the bronchial mucosa of circulating immune complexes, as well as braking and erozirovaniya desquamation mucosa. It increases the sensitivity of the beta-adrenergic receptors of the bronchi of small and medium caliber to endogenous catecholamines and exogenous sympathomimetic, reduces the viscosity of mucus by reducing its production. It suppresses the synthesis and secretion of ACTH and the second – the synthesis of endogenous corticosteroids. Hinders connective tissue reaction in the course of the inflammatory process and reduces the possibility of the formation of scar tissue.
Up to 90% of the drug binds to plasma proteins: transcortin (kortizolsvyazyvayuschim globulin) and albumin. Prednisolone is metabolized in the liver and kidneys and partly in other tissues, mainly by conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The metabolites are inactive. Excreted in the bile and in the urine by glomerular filtration and 80-90% is reabsorbed tubules. 20% of the dose excreted by the kidneys in an unmodified form. Plasma half-life after intravenous administration of 3.2 hours.
Prednizol used for emergency treatment for conditions requiring a rapid increase in the concentration of glucocorticoids in the body:
- A state of shock (burns, traumatic, operational, toxic, cardiogenic) – the ineffectiveness vasoconstrictor, plasma-drugs and other symptomatic therapy;
- Allergic reactions (acute severe), transfusion shock, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid reactions;
- Cerebral edema (including buy primobolan on the background of a brain tumor or associated with surgery, radiation therapy, or head injury);
- Bronchial asthma (severe), asthmatic status;
- Systemic connective tissue diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis);
- Acute adrenal insufficiency;
- Thyrotoxic crisis;
- Acute hepatitis, hepatic coma;
- Decrease inflammation and prevent scarring restrictions (for poisoning cauterizing liquids).